Optimising energy systems of Ghana for long-term scenarios

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Albert, Kotawoke Awopone
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Brunel University London
This study explored energy solutions for Ghana by analysing alternative pathways from 2010 to 2040. The Long-range Energy Alternating Pathways (LEAP) tool was used the scenarios analysis. Four scenarios were developed based on key influencing factors identified in the literature. These are Base case, Coal, Modest Renewable Energy Technology (RET), and High RET scenarios. The Base case scenario was based on government-planned expansion and assumed no shift in policy. The Coal scenario assumed the same expansion trend as Base case with introduction of coal plants replacing a percentage of natural gas generation. Modest and High RET scenarios examined the development of the system with increased renewable energy integration. The results revealed that overall benefits are achieved with higher integration of renewable energy technologies. Economic benefits of 0.5 – 13.23% is achieved in the RET scenarios depending on the cost development over the 30 year study period. The high RET offers the highest economic and environmental benefits. Subsequently, the optimal development of the system was examined using the LEAP/OSeMOSYS (Open Source Energy Modelling System) optimisation methodology. The least cost system developed by LEAP (Optimum scenario), was used as a reference to examine future possible energy policy direction in Ghana. The policy constraints analysed included emission targets, carbon taxes and transmission, distribution losses improvements and demand side efficiency. The results show that: suitable policies for clean power generation have an important role in CO2 mitigation in Ghana. The introduction of carbon minimisation policies will also promote diversification of the generation mix with higher penetration of renewable energy technologies. The study proposes promoting energy efficiency and improvement in transmission and distribution losses and utilisation of renewable energy as the best energy strategy for Ghana. Ghana needs ambitious targets, policies and implementation strategies to enhance energy efficiency, and decrease demand in the long term. Stable funding and promotion of transparent policies are required to promote high development of renewable energy technologies.
Awopone, A. K. (2017). Optimising energy systems of Ghana for long-term scenarios (Doctoral dissertation, Brunel University London).