Urbanization and pollution of surface water resources in the two largest cities in Ghana

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Monney, Isaac
Boakye, Robert
Buamah, Richard
Anyemedu, Frederick Oppong Kyekyeku
Odai, Samuel Nii
Awuah, Esi
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Pollution of freshwater resources draining urban centres in the developing world poses a threat to human health and environmental sustainability. This, apart from inadequate infrastructure, is primarily propelled by explosive urban pop ulations. The study seeks to determine the level of pollution and sources of pollution in selected surface water resources in Accra and Kumasi. Water samples from specific locations of the Aboabo river in Kumasi and the upper reaches of the Korle Lagoon in Accra were collected and analysed for their physico-chemical and microbial quality during the study period. The results from the study pointed out that the upper reaches of the Lagoon is rendered anaerobic during the dry season and with appreciably low DO even during the wet season. Drastic depreciation in DO levels in the Aboabo river as it flows through highly populated areas (Aboabo, Moshie Zongo and Anloga) were depicted through the study. Elevated BOD (upper reaches of the Korle Lagoon: 27.7 - 200mg/L; Aboabo river: 38.25mg/L - 260mg/L) and E. coli (upper reaches of the Korle Lagoon: 5.0x106 - 2.8x109 CFU/100mL; Aboabo river: 4.0x106 CFU/100mL - 1.3x108 CFU/100mL) levels were also recorded in both waterbodies generally attributed to disposal of organic wastes and faecal matter into them. An integrated approach that takes cognizance of both technical and socio-economic factors behind this phenomenon is proposed by the study.
Monney, I., Boakye, R., Buamah, R., Anyemedu, F. O. K., Odai, S. N., & Awuah, E. (2013). Urbanization and pollution of surface water resources in the two largest cities in Ghana. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 1(6), 279.