Department of Environmental Health And Sanitation Education

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 75
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    Zoonotic Risks from Domestic Animals in Ghana
    (International Journal of Pathogen Research, 2020) Papa Kofi, Amissah-Reynolds
    Zoonoses are diseases or infections which are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. These infections account for more than half of human infections worldwide, with most cases reported in developing countries like Ghana. The Government of Ghana recently launched the “Rearing for Food and Jobs Campaign”, an initiative to bridge the glaring deficit in protein supply. This has resulted in increased livestock production nationwide in response to the increasing demand for animal protein. Increase in both human and livestock population in the country have implications for transmission of zoonotic diseases, as it allows for more frequent interactions between the two within a limited space. Multiple animals are kept in various homes at varying levels of confinement. Security concerns, particularly in urban areas, have resulted in an increased reliance on dogs, while financial considerations have mainly driven a rapid increase in livestock production both at commercial and smallholder levels. Taking into account that the pandemics in the past few decades have animal origins, this growing human animal interconnection is of concern. Albeit an increased household-human-animal ratio, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on domestic animals in Ghana. Several zoonotic diseases have been reported in Ghana, including rabies, toxocariasis, toxoplasmosis, Q-fever, hepatitis E and brucellosis. Risk factors such as close contact with animals, poor hand hygiene, poor sanitation, and unvaccinated, free-ranging animals have been linked with zoonotic transmissions. Zoonoses have been recorded in homes, slaughterhouses, and on farms in farm workers, butchers, and vulnerable groups, including children, pregnant women, and HIV patients. A ‘One-Health’ approach, which comprises well-coordinated activities of both health and veterinary services, will facilitate timely diagnosis and effective control of zoonoses in Ghana.
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    The Upsurge of COVID-19 Cases Amidst the Reopening of Schools in Ghana: The Role of Teachers as Frontline Workers
    (International Journal of Secondary Education, 2020) Eric, Twum Ampofo; Robert, Ampomah; Papa Kofi, Amissah-Reynolds; Samuel, Ebo Owusu; Michael, Opoku-Manu
    The novel coronavirus disease is a global pandemic and gradually teachers are beginning to find themselves on the frontline of educational delivery as lots of countries, including Ghana, ease up restrictions and reopen schools. The main aim of this article was to present evidence to validate teachers’ role as frontline workers amid rising cases of COVID-19. Also, we looked at the measures the government put in place prior to the reopening vis-a-vis their adequacy. Again, we examined reasons for the emerging increase in cases of COVID-19 infections among teachers and strategies to overcome this problem. So far, available evidence suggest that about 24% of teachers are being increasingly infected with the novel disease. Major factors accounting for COVID-19 infections among teachers include inadequate preparation before reopening of schools, a lack of understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, unavailability of PPEs, and psychological stress. We, therefore recommend that protection of students, teachers and non-teaching staff should be of topmost priority of the government through the education and training, provision of appropriate incentives, provision of PPEs and the requisite psychological support.
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    Prevalence of Helminths in Dogs and Owners’ Awareness of Zoonotic Diseases in Mampong, Ashanti, Ghana
    (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2016) Papa Kofi, Amissah-Reynolds; Isaac Monney; Lucy, Mawusi Adowah; Samuel, Opoku Agyemang
    Dogs are popular pets that live closely with humans. However, this cohabitation allows for the transmission of zoonotic parasites to humans. In Ghana, very little is known about zoonotic parasites in dogs. We examined excrements of 154 dogs for intestinal helminthes using saturated sodium chloride as a floatation medium and further interviewed 100 dog owners regarding knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices. Thirteen parasite species were identified, with an overall prevalence of 52.6%. Nematodes were more common than cestodes, with Toxocara canis being the most prevalent helminth (18.8%). Age (𝑝 = 0.011; 𝜒 2 = 9.034) and location (𝑝 = 0.02; 𝜒 2 = 12.323) of dogs were significant risk factors of helminthic infections, while mode of housing, function, and gender of dogs were not. Knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices were poor, including irregular deworming and feeding of animals off the bare ground. Dogs may play an active role in the transmission of zoonotic diseases in the area, given the cohabitation of infected dogs with humans; irregular deworming pattern of dogs; and rampant excretion of helminth-infested dog excreta into the environment.
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    Preliminary studies on the parasitism rate of larval parasitoids of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in the Ashanti region of Ghana
    (Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 2022) Yeboah, OE; Amissah-Reynolds, PK; Ofori, AS; Kwakye, DO; Amoabeng, BW; Asante, C
    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is the most important pest of the brassicas worldwide. Over the years, management of this pest has largely relied on conventional insecticides, with well-documented negative impacts. Biological control using indigenous natural enemies is a promising way to manage the pest while reducing the use of synthetic insecticides. However, due to the negative impact of synthetic insecticides on beneficial insects, the number of natural enemies in the agroecosystem is often below the levels that may have significant pest reduction. Here, we assessed the range and parasitism rates of the larval parasitoids of P. xylostella in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. On the whole, one hymenopteran endo-parasitoid species, Cotesia plutellae, was identified in the P. xylostella larval samples. In all, the percentage of field parasitism of P. xylostella larvae ranged between 11% and 23%. Given the percentage of parasitism in this preliminary study, we are of the view that there is potential in relying on endemic parasitoids to biologically manage P. xylostella if conditions in agroecology are improved to encourage the survival of these beneficial insects
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    An Efficacy of Anti-hyperglycemic Agents (Nigella sativa) in Blood, Body Weight and Glucose levels of Diabetes Mellitus Rats: A Comprehensive Review
    (International Journal of Health Sciences and Research, 2023) Samuel, A. Ofori; Enoch, Owusu Yeboah; Papa Kofi, Amissah-Reynolds; Prince, Owusu; Amankwah, Philip
    There is a large global trend toward the use of medicinal herbs for the treatment of diabetes, and many people employ complementary and alternative medicine. The objective of the study was to provide comprehensive information on the effects of Nigella sativa on lipid profile, glucose level, and body weight in diabetic-induced rats. This is a comprehensive review carried out through PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar and Springer and other Scientific Electronic Library Online databases, using the keywords; “N. sativa”, “black seed”, “diabetes”, “glucose”, “lipid”, “Weight”, and “insulin” associated with the Boolean operator “AND”. At first, 241 articles from 2000 to 2022 were discovered. Following the application of the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria, 21 papers were still available, and 15 underwent complete reading, after which all were included in the study. According to their findings, N. sativa has a variety of possible mechanisms for controlling hyperglycemia and abnormal lipid profiles, including its antioxidant properties and influences on insulin secretion, glucose absorption and body weight. However, further clinical studies are required to determine the N. sativa therapeutic benefits, as well as the kind and dose that work best for managing diabetes and its consequences.